PCOS (Polycystic Ovary Syndrome) is a syndrome that affects women of reproductive age due to a hormonal imbalance. It is the most common endocrinological disorder seen in females. The male hormone testosterone is found at higher-than-normal levels in PCOS individuals. PCOS is a lifestyle condition that is closely related to the patient’s diet, activity, and stress levels. The ovaries of the patient show multiple follicles and cysts inside them that justify the name of the disease. For PCOS treatment in Vadodara, Call now at 72279 82345 Or visit Sankalp Hospital at Vasna Raod.
What are the PCOS symptoms?
PCOS patients experience oligomenorrhea, which means their menstrual cycles are delayed (only 8 or fewer periods in a year). Because the cycles are less frequent, the endometrium thickens significantly during this time, resulting in extremely severe bleeding when the period begins.
Other symptoms emerge in PCOS individuals as a result of an excess in the male hormone, testosterone. These are as follows:
- Acne-prone or oily skin
- Darkening of skin folds like the neck, below the breasts, etc
- Weight gain
- Infertility or difficulties conceiving
- Hirsutism (excess body and facial hair)
- Thinning hair or male pattern baldness
Why does PCOS occur?
Obesity is both a cause and a consequence of PCOS, creating a vicious circle. Women who are overweight or obese are at a higher risk of developing PCOS. Excess fat in the body induces insulin resistance, which leads to an increase in insulin production. Excess insulin and insulin resistance are linked to an increase in the body’s testosterone production.
A well-balanced diet, regular exercise, and stress management are important for women who want to avoid PCOS.
How can PCOS impact fertility?
PCOS’s actual aetiology is unknown. Early detection and treatment, as well as weight reduction, may lower the risk of long-term consequences such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
- SHBG – normal to low, provides a surrogate measurement of the degree of hyperinsulinaemia.
- LH and FSH levels are not required for PCOS diagnosis but are required to rule out alternative causes of oligomenorrhoea and amenorrhoea. Because of its unpredictability, LH/FSH ratios are ineffective in diagnosing PCOS. LH levels may be somewhat increased.
- Prolactin – may be mildly elevated.
TSH level – used to rule out thyroid disease.
- Free androgen index (total testosterone/SHBG × 100) – normal or elevated, provides an assessment of physiologically active testosterone. The most accurate method of determining hyperandrogenaemia.
- Oestradiol levels should not be measured since they might be normal or low in both PCOS and hypothalamic amenorrhoea.
ULTRASOUND PELVIS – to check for the characteristic image of polycystic ovaries (PCO – 12 or more follicles in at least one ovary, measuring 2–9 mm in diameter) or increased ovarian volume (> 10 mL). The discovery of PCO does not prove the diagnosis.
- Metformin and the thiazolidinediones (troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone) lower insulin resistance and the risk of developing diabetes and other metabolic complications.
- Ovarian diathermy: Reserve ovarian diathermy for selected anovulatory women with a normal BMI or where a laparoscopy is required for other indications.
- The first and most important step in treating PCOD-related infertility is to lose weight. Even a 5-7% weight decrease might cause spontaneous ovulation.
- Ovulation induction: To induce ovulation, a range of medicines such as clomiphene citrate, letrozole, and gonadotrophins such as FSH and HMG may be utilized. Serial follicular monitoring should be used to titrate the dose.
- Adjuvant medications such as metformin, myoinositol, and low-dose steroids may be utilized if the ovaries do not react to these therapies.
- When the ovaries do not react to ovulation induction medicines, laparoscopy and ovarian drilling may be recommended. This is especially beneficial in those with PCOS and high LH.
- If they are unable to conceive after 6 cycles of ovulation induction and 3-4 rounds of IUI, they may need to consider IVF treatment.
For more information & consultation on PCOS treatment in Vadodara, visit Sankalp Hospital at Vasna Road or contact us on 72279 82345